The Kardashev Scale

What is the Kardashev scale? The scale was originally designed in 1964 by the Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev. He was looking for signs of extraterrestrial life within cosmic signals. The Kardashev scale has 3 base classes, each with an energy disposal level: Type I (10¹⁶W), Type II (10²⁶W), and Type III (10³⁶W). Other astronomers have […]

Technological Singularity

What is Technological Singularity? The idea that human history is approaching a “singularity”—that ordinary humans will someday be overtaken by artificially intelligent machines or cognitively enhanced biological intelligence, or both—has moved from the realm of science fiction to serious debate. Some singularity theorists predict that if the field of artificial intelligence (AI) continues to develop […]

Post Scarcity Civilisations

Post Scarcity Civilisations If resources were unlimited, everything would be free. Cars would be free just as gumballs would be free. And because everything is free, then NOTHING would have value. There would be no prices. Just “stuff.” What Is A Post Scarcity Society? “Post Scarcity” is basically a utopian ideal of economists. It means […]

Interstellar Empires

The concept of Interstellar Empires has fascinated us for as long as we’ve know those stars in the night sky were other solar systems, and it’s become a staple of science fiction. But rarely do we consider how realistic such galaxy-spanning confederations are, and what special challenges they’d face. Republished by Blog Post Promoter


The word Ecumenopolis was invented in 1967 by the Greek city planner Constantinos Doxiadis to represent the idea that in the future urban areas and megalopolises would eventually fuse and there would be a single continuous worldwide city as a progression from the current urbanisation, population growth, transport and human networks. This concept was already […]