The word Ecumenopolis was invented in 1967 by the Greek city planner Constantinos Doxiadis to represent the idea that in the future urban areas and megalopolises would eventually fuse and there would be a single continuous worldwide city as a progression from the current urbanisation, population growth, transport and human networks. This concept was already […]

Self Replicating Machines

John Von Neumann And Self Replicating Machines Scientists and engineers since the 1940s have been toying with the idea of building self-replicating machines, or von Neumann machines, named for John von Neumann. With recent advances in 3D printing (including in zero gravity) and machine learning AI, it seems like self-replicating machines are much more feasible […]

The Kardashev Scale

What is the Kardashev scale? The scale was originally designed in 1964 by the Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev. He was looking for signs of extraterrestrial life within cosmic signals. The Kardashev scale has 3 base classes, each with an energy disposal level: Type I (10¹⁶W), Type II (10²⁶W), and Type III (10³⁶W). Other astronomers have […]

Technological Singularity

What is Technological Singularity? The idea that human history is approaching a “singularity”—that ordinary humans will someday be overtaken by artificially intelligent machines or cognitively enhanced biological intelligence, or both—has moved from the realm of science fiction to serious debate. Some singularity theorists predict that if the field of artificial intelligence (AI) continues to develop […]